eduMETA Care

By 2 years, it’s common for many children to:

-say more than 50 words - put two words together to form a sentence (“I go!”)
- be understood at least half the time -follow a two-step command (“Pick up the ball and bring it to me.”) -run well -Kick a ball -walk down stairs - make lines and circular scribbles - play alongside other children

What to Expect During Regular Health Check –Ups

1. Check your child’s weight , height , and head circumference and plot the measurements on
the growth charts. Your doctor will also calculate and plot your child’s body mass index (BMI) 2. Administer a screening (test) that helps with the early identification of autism. 3. Ask questions, address concerns, and provide guidance for Eating, Peeing and pooping, Sleeping, etc 4. Do a physical exam 5. Update immunizations

Body Mass Index

For years, doctors have used height and weight measurements to assess a child’sphysical
growth in relation to other kids thesame age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI) BMI is acalculation thatuses height and weight to estimate how much body fat someone has. Doctors use it to determine how appropriate a child’s weight is for a certain height and age.

Whether you have a toddler or a teen, here are five of the best strategies to improve nutrition and encourage smart eating habits:

Have regular family meals.
Serve a variety of healthy foods and snacks.
Be a role model by eating healthy yourself.
Avoid battles over food.
Involve kids in the process.

Here’s how to scrub those germs away. Teach this to your kids -or better yet, wash your hands together often so they learn how important this good habit is :

1) Wash your hands in warm water. Make sure the water isn’t too hot for little hands. 2) Use soap and lather up for about 20 seconds (antibacterial soap isn’t necessary – any soap will do). 3) Make sure you get in between the fingers and under the nails where germs like to hang out .And don’t forget the wrists! 4) Rinse and dry well with a clean towel.

What Are Allergies?

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people. When a person is allergic to something, the immune system mistakenly believes that this substance
is harming the body. Substances that cause allergic reactions — such as some foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens. Allergies are a major cause of illness in the United States. Up to 50 million Americans, including millions of kids, have some type of allergy. In fact, allergies cause about 2 million missed school days each year.

How Toddlers Communicate

Most kids say their first words around the time of their first birthday. A toddler who is preoccupied with learning to walk may push
talking to the back burner; it's not unusual and is nothing to be alarmed about. Kids this age might have learned fragments of dozens of words that may not be recognizable. They may echo what they hear or mix a few words with jargon (babbling with sentence-like intonations). When they get around to talking, though, they'll probably progress quickly and soon be able to point at something familiar and say its name, and recognize names of familiar people, objects, and body parts. By 2 years old, most toddlers will say 50 words or more, use phrases, and be able to put together two- to three-word sentences. No matter when they say their first words, it's a sure bet they are already understanding much of what is said to them before that. Your child should be able to respond to simple commands ("Roll the ball to Mommy") and should be fully aware of the names of familiar objects and family members.

Most children meet these language milestones during this period:

• pointing to familiar people, objects, and some body parts by 18 months.
• saying several words by 15-18 months of age • saying 50 or more words by 2 years of age • putting two words together to form a sentence by age 2 • following two-step commands by age 2 Don't hesitate to report any concerns you have to your doctor, especially if you feel your child is not talking or you have concerns about hearing.

By age 2, toddlers should be able to:

-walk on their own -speak at least 15 words
-put two words together to form a sentence
-follow simple directions
-imitate actions -push and pull a toy Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about your child's development.

Choosing Safe Baby Products

Even though babies are small and seem uncomplicated, there's nothing small or simple about
their accessories! Selecting products for your baby can be confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). But one overriding consideration must never be compromised when choosing baby products, whether you're buying, borrowing, or accepting a hand-me-down: your little one's safety.

What You Need to Know in an Emergency

Making a complete written or computer-based medical history for your kids is a good idea.
Be sure their medical records have this information: Allergies Medications Pre-Existing Illnesses Immunizations Weight Family History Information for Caregivers

Getting Help: Know the Numbers

The best time to prepare for an emergency is before one happens. Make sure your family knows
emergency phone numbers and your kids know how to place a call for help. To place a call to 112 and talk to the operator, kids should know: -how to dial 112 -their full name -their full address -how to give a short description of the emergency -It is also helpful for your kids to know their phone number. The dispatcher will often ask this question in case the call is disconnected. Have your kids practice by speaking into a telephone.

Experts recommend that toddlers should:

• get at least 30 minutes daily of structured (adult-led) physical activity like playing
on the playground, going for a walk, or being in a parent-and-child tumbling class • also have at least 1 hour of unstructured free play each day when they can explore and play with toys • not be inactive for more than 1 hour at a time except when sleeping • have indoor and outdoor areas that meet or exceed recommended safety standards for all of their activities As their physical skills develop, toddlers also learn to use their hands more. Toys and objects that can encourage this include: • paper and crayons • sculpting dough • simple stacking toys that kids can build up and knock down • simple puzzles

How Much Sleep Does My Toddler Need?

Between the ages of 1 and 2, most kids need about 12-14 hours of sleep a day,
including one or two daytime naps. At around 18 months, or sometimes sooner, most toddlers condense their two naps into one afternoon nap. If you find that your toddler fights the morning nap, he or she is probably ready for just an afternoon nap.

Toddlers: Learning by

It might look like just child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important
physical skills as they gain muscle control, balance, and coordination. Each new skill lets them progress to the next one, building on a foundation that leads to more complicated physical tasks, such as jumping rope, kicking a ball on the run, or turning a cartwheel. Toddlers always want to do more, which can motivate them to keep trying until they master a new skill, no matter what it takes.

Toddler Skills

-walks independently -pulls/carries toys while walking -stoops and gets back up
-begins to run -kicks a ball -holds railing going up/down stairs -walks backward -balances 1 to 2 seconds on one foot -climbs well -bends over easily without falling -runs well -kicks ball forward -both feet on step going up/down stairs -starts to pedal tricycle -throws ball over head

How Much Activity Is Enough?

For children 12-36 months old, current National Association for Sports and Physical Education
(NASPE) guidelines recommend this much daily activity: • at least 30 minutes of structured physical activity (adult-led) • at least 60 minutes unstructured physical activity (free play) As a general rule, toddlers shouldn't be inactive for more than 1 hour at a time, except for sleeping. That's a lot of work for parents and caregivers, but a lot of much-needed activity for toddlers. Encourage your toddler to be active, and remember how much he or she is learning along the way.

Snacks for Toddlers

Most toddlers do well with three meals and two or three snacks a day — perhaps mid-morning,
mid-afternoon, and again after dinner, if necessary. Toddlers should be feeding themselves, so think simple, finger-friendly, bite-size foods like: -Low-sugar, whole-grain breakfast cereals -fresh fruit thinly sliced or cut into small pieces -Whole-grain crackers and mini-muffins -cheese cut into thin slices or shredded

Stick to a Snack Schedule

Kids do better with a routine, so try to serve snacks and meals at about the same time every day.
That way your child will know what to expect. Feeling the sensation of being full and then hungry again a few hours later teaches kids to respond to internal hunger cues — and knowing when to eat and, more important, when to stop is vital to maintaining a healthy weight. If allowed to graze all day without a schedule, kids may lose the ability to detect their own hunger and fullness, which can make them more likely to overeat.

A word about juice

Juice — even 100% fruit juice — contains about the same amount of calories as soda. And juice drinks have excessive amounts of added sugar.
Letting kids carry around a juice box all day can lead to diarrhea in some and contribute to weight gain in others. Limit your toddler's juice intake to no more than 4 oz. (120 ml) a day. When your child is thirsty, water and milk are the best choices. If your child is a juice fanatic, offer fruit rather than juice, because whole fruits contain important vitamins and fiber.

Things to Avoid

Most parents have bribed their child by promising some tasty treat, but this isn't a good strategy.
Using sweets as a bribe creates the impression that they're more valuable or better than other, more healthy foods — plus kids quickly learn to use them as a bargaining tool. As for sweets, there's really no reason, nutritionally, for young kids to have them. You don't have to deprive your child of birthday cake, though, or other occasional treats. But don't let these empty-calorie items become part of the regular snack menu. Make sweets the exception rather than the rule and your child won't feel entitled to them or too surprised when you say no. Your toddler will be less likely to beg for sweets and chips if you keep these less nutritious snacks out of your home.

Let Kids Feed Themselves

Kids should start finger feeding around 9 months of age and try using utensils by 15-18 months.
Provide many opportunities for this, but make sure your toddler eats enough so that the experience doesn't lead to frustration. Jump in to help when necessary, but pay attention to hunger cues and signs that your child is full. You can always offer more if your child still seems hungry, but you can't take the food back if you overfeed. When you're controlling the fork or spoon, resist the urge to slip in one more bite. And as your toddler gets the hang of eating, step back and let your child take over. Some parents think that not letting kids feed themselves is for the best, but it takes away control that rightfully belongs to kids at this age. They need to decide whether to eat, what they will eat, and how much to eat — this is how they learn to recognize the internal cues that tell them when they're hungry and when they're full. Just as important, toddlers need to learn and practice the mechanics of feeding themselves.

Can Kids Skip a Meal?

Many toddlers need to eat often — as much as six times a day, including three meals and two or three snacks.
Keep this in mind as you establish a pattern of meal and snacks. But realize that a food schedule only sets the times that you will present food to your toddler. Your child may not take every opportunity to eat. Allowing kids to skip a meal is a difficult concept because many of us were raised to clean our plates and not waste food. But kids should be allowed to respond to their own hunger cues, a vital skill when it comes to maintaining a healthy weight. That means eating when hungry — and sometimes not eating, even if it's time for Thanksgiving dinner. Set times for meals and snacks and try to stick to them. A child who skips a meal finds it reassuring to know when to expect the next one. Avoid offering snacks or pacifying hungry kids with cups of milk or juice right before a meal — this can diminish their appetite and decrease their willingness to try a new food being offered.

Avoid the Junk Food

Toddlers need to eat healthy to get the nutrients their growing bodies need. Candy, potato chips,
and other low-nutrient "junk foods" shouldn't be part of their diet because they can crowd out the healthy foods needed. Also, food preferences are established early in life, so don't miss opportunities to help your toddler develop a taste for nutritious foods. Even if your child likes candy or chips, don't feel like you must give in. Kids can't run to the store to buy them, so just don't keep them in the house. If your toddler asks for candy, simply say, "We don't have any candy." Then present two healthy snack alternatives to choose from. Even a child who mourns the lack of candy will still enjoy the sense of control from deciding which healthy snack to eat.

Meeting Iron Requirements

Toddlers should have 7 milligrams of iron each day. After 12 months of age, they're at risk for
iron deficiency because they no longer drink iron-fortified formula and may not be eating iron-fortified infant cereal or enough other iron-containing foods to make up the difference. To help prevent iron deficiency: • Limit your child's milk intake to about 16-24 ounces a day (2 to 3 cups). • Serve more iron-rich foods (meat, poultry, fish, enriched grains, beans, tofu). • When serving iron-rich meals, include foods that contain vitamin C (like tomatoes, broccoli, oranges, and strawberries), which improve the body's iron absorption. • Continue serving iron-fortified cereal until your child is 18-24 months old.

Tips for Smart Snacking

-Keep healthy snacks in your refrigerator or pantry. Let kids choose their own snacks
from among a couple of nutritious options. -Offer a variety of snacks, not just the ones kids already likes. Offer new choices, but don't give up on foods that may have been rejected in the past. It may take a few tries before a child accepts a new food. -Have a schedule for meals and snacks. This lets kids manage their hunger because they know when to expect the next chance to eat at the next scheduled time. Avoid letting kids pick throughout the day, which can dull internal hunger cues and make them more likely to overeat. -Don't let kids eat in front of the TV. Serve snacks and meals at the table. -Keep mostly healthy foods in the house, with those high in calories, fat, and added sugar kept to a minimum. This doesn't mean kids can never have these foods, but they should be offered only once in a while.

Tips for Smart Snacking

-Serve skim or low-fat milk or water with snacks instead of sugary drinks and soda. Limit 100%
juice to one serving per day. -Make your preschooler a part of the action! Kids this age feel important when adults let them help out. Let them do what they safely can to prepare their own snacks — whether that's tossing the fruit salad or putting utensils and napkins on the table. -Keep an eye on how your child's moods affect eating patterns. Preschoolers often confuse boredom or fatigue with hunger. If your child just ate and is complaining of hunger again, see if a change of scenery or some active play could do the trick. -Share a healthy snack with your kids, who will follow your lead and get the message that you're serving something good.

Why Do Preschoolers Need to

Preschoolers can be unstoppable — running, spinning, leaping, and climbing at every opportunity.
Their desire to move, move, move makes this a great time to encourage fitness habits that will last. Kids need to be fit for the same reasons adults do: to improve their health and make sure that their bodies can do what they need them to do. Regular exercise helps kids grow, builds strong muscles and bones, develops important motor skills, and boosts self-esteem.

How Can I keep My Preschooler Active?

So what should parents and caregivers do? You probably already know what will motivate this age group best: fun.
To keep active time fun, know what activities are best for your child's age group and make having a good time the top priority. For instance, preschoolers might groan if you drag them on a boring walk around an exercise track. But if you walk through the woods, stopping to admire nature and tossing rocks into a stream, the walk is much more appealing. Understanding which skills your child has — and is working on — is another key to keeping it fun. You can have a great time kicking the ball back and forth together, but your child probably wouldn't have much fun if put into a soccer game with all the rules enforced.

Parents Play an Important

One important message here is that your preschooler is clearly keeping an eye on how you spend your time, so set a good example by
exercising regularly. Your child will pick up on this as something parents do and will naturally want to do it too.

Family Meals

Family meals are a comforting ritual for both parents and kids. Children like the predictability of family meals and parents get a chance to
catch up with their kids. Kids who take part in regular family meals are also: • more likely to eat fruits, vegetables, and grains • less likely to snack on unhealthy foods • less likely to smoke, use marijuana, or drink alcohol Also, family meals are a chance for parents to introduce kids to new foods and to be role models for healthy eating.

Family Meals

What counts as a family meal? Whenever you and your family eat together — whether it's takeout food or a home-cooked meal with all the
trimmings. Strive for nutritious food and a time when everyone can be there. This may mean eating dinner a little later to accommodate a teen who's at sports practice. It also can mean setting aside time on the weekends when it may be more convenient to gather as a group, such as for Sunday brunch. You might also try these: -Allow kids to invite a friend to dinner. -Involve your child in meal planning and preparation. -Keep mealtime calm and friendly — no lectures or arguing.

games provide fun and fitness for parents and toddlers:

-Walk like a penguin, hop like a frog, or imitate other animals' movements.
-Sit facing each other and hold hands. Rock back and forth and sing the song "Row, row, row your boat." -Bend at the waist and touch the ground. Walk your hands forward and inch along like a caterpillar. -Sit on the ground and let your child step over your legs, or make a bridge with your body and let your child crawl under. -Play follow the leader, "Ring around the rosy," and other similar games. -Listen to music and dance together.

Benefits of a Bedtime

A bedtime routine is a great way to help your preschooler get enough sleep.
Here are a few things to keep in mind when creating one: -Include a winding-down period during the half hour before bedtime. -Stick to a bedtime, alerting your child both half an hour and 10 minutes beforehand. -Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. -Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. -Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. -Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. -Limit food and drink before bedtime. -Allow your child to choose which pajamas to wear, which stuffed animal to take to bed, etc. -Consider playing soft, soothing music. -Tuck your child into bed snugly for a feeling of security.

A Note on Naps

Most preschoolers do still need naps during the day. They tend to be very active — running around,
playing, going to school, and exploring their surroundings — so it's a good idea to give them a special opportunity to slow down. Even if your child can't fall asleep, try to set aside some quiet time during the day for relaxing. (And you'll probably benefit from a break too!) The best way to encourage napping is to set up a routine for your child, just as you do for bedtime. Your preschooler, not wanting to miss out on any of the action, may resist a nap, but it's important to keep the routine firm and consistent. Explain that this is quiet time and that you want your child to start out in bed, but that it's OK to play in the bedroom quietly if he or she can't sleep. How long should naps last? For however long you feel your preschooler needs to get some rest. Usually, about an hour is sufficient. But there will be times when your child has been going full tilt and will need a longer nap, and others when you hear your child chattering away, playing through the entire naptime.

Causes of Sleep

Sleepwalking is far more common in kids than in adults, as most sleepwalkers outgrow it
by the early teen years. It may run in families, so if you or your partner are or were sleepwalkers, your child may be too. Other factors that may bring on a sleepwalking episode include: • lack of sleep or fatigue • irregular sleep schedules • illness or fever • certain medications • stress (sleepwalking is rarely caused by an underlying medical, emotional, or psychological problem)

How to Take Your Child's

All kids get a fever from time to time. A fever itself causes no harm and can actually be a
good thing — it's often the body's way of fighting infections. But a high fever sometimes is a sign of a problem that needs your doctor's attention. Taking Temperatures For kids between 6 months and 4 years old: you can use a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature, or you can also use a digital thermometer to take an axillary temperature, although this is a less accurate method.

What Causes Fevers?

It's important to remember that fever by itself is not an illness — it's usually a symptom of another problem.
-Infection -Overdressing -Immunizations

illness is probably not serious if your child:

-is still interested in playing -is eating and drinking well
-is alert and smiling at you -has a normal skin color -looks well when his or her temperature comes down And don't worry too much about a child with a fever who doesn't want to eat. This is very common with infections that cause fever. For kids who still drink and urinate (pee) normally, not eating as much as usual is OK.

When Should I Call the

The exact temperature that should trigger a call to the doctor depends on a child's age,
the illness, and whether there are other symptoms with the fever. Call your doctor if you have an: -infant younger than 3 months old with a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher -older child with a temperature of higher than 102.2°F (39°C) -refuses fluids or seems too ill to drink adequately -has lasting diarrhea or repeated vomiting -has any signs of dehydration (peeing less than usual, not having tears when crying, less alert and less active than usual) -has a specific complaint (like a sore throat or earache) -still has a fever after 24 hours (in kids younger than 2 years old) or 72 hours (in kids 2 years or older) -is getting fevers a lot, even if they only last a few hours each night -has a chronic medical problem, such as heart disease, cancer, lupus, or sickle cell disease -has a rash -has pain while peeing

Get emergency care if your child shows any of these signs:

-crying that won't stop -extreme irritability or fussiness -sluggishness and trouble waking up
-a rash or purple spots that look like bruises on the skin (that were not there before your child got sick) -blue lips, tongue, or nails -infant's soft spot on the head seems to be bulging out or sunken in -stiff neck -severe headache -limpness or refusal to move -trouble breathing that doesn't get better when the nose is cleared -leaning forward and drooling -seizure -abdominal (belly) pain

What Else Should I Know about

All kids get fevers, and in most cases they're completely back to normal within a few days.
For older babies and kids, the way they act can be more important than the reading on your thermometer. Everyone gets a little cranky when they have a fever. This is normal and should be expected. But if you're ever in doubt about what to do or what a fever might mean, or if your child is acting ill in a way that concerns you even if there's no fever, always call your doctor for advice.

5 Ways to
Bully-Proof Your Kid

-Talk about it.
-Remove the bait
-Buddy up for safety
-Keep calm and carry on
-Don't try to fight the battle yourself

the nature of anxieties and fears change as kids grow and develop:

• Babies experience stranger anxiety, clinging to parents when confronted by people they don't
• Toddlers around 10 to 18 months old experience separation anxiety, becoming emotionally distressed when one or both parents leave. • Kids ages 4 through 6 have anxiety about things that aren't based in reality, such as fears of monsters and ghosts. • Kids ages 7 through 12 often have fears that reflect real circumstances that may happen to them, such as bodily injury and natural disaster.

Some signs that a child may be anxious about something may include:

• becoming clingy, impulsive, or distracted
• nervous movements, such as temporary twitches
• problems getting to sleep and/or staying asleep longer than usual • sweaty hands • accelerated heart rate and breathing • nausea • headaches • stomachaches

Kids who have healthy self-esteem tend to:

• feel valued and accepted • feel confident that they can do what's expected
• feel proud of a job well done • think good things about themselves • feel prepared for everyday challenges

Kids with low self-esteem

-feel self-critical and are hard on themselves -feel insecure, or not as good as other kids
-focus on the times they fail rather than the times they succeed -lack confidence -doubt their ability to do well at things

Why Self-Esteem Matters

When children feel good about themselves, it sets them up for success — in everything from school to friendships.
Positive feelings like self-acceptance or self-confidence help kids try new challenges, cope with mistakes, and try again. Taking pride in their abilities and accomplishments helps kids do their best. By contrast, kids with low self-esteem might feel unsure of themselves. If they think others won't accept them, they may not participate as often. They may allow themselves to be treated poorly and have a hard time standing up for themselves. Kids who don't expect to do well may avoid challenges, give up easily, or be unable to bounce back from mistakes. Having low self-esteem can block success. It can leave kids distracted by the stress of how to deal with everyday challenges.

How Self-Esteem

Self-esteem is the result of experiences that help a child feel capable, effective, and accepted
• When kids learn to do things for themselves and feel proud of what they can do, they feel capable. • Children feel effective when they see that good things come from efforts like trying hard, getting close to a goal, or making progress. For example, kids who take part in a service projectfeel good about themselves when they see how their actions matter. • When kids feel accepted and understood by a parent or someone close, they are likely to accept themselves, too. Their good feelings about themselves multiply as parents praise good behaviors, help when needed, and give encouragement and support.

How Parents Can Nurture Self-Esteem

-Help your child learn to do things -When teaching kids how to do things, show and help them at first -Avoid over-praising
-Praise effort rather than fixed qualities -Be a good role model -Ban harsh criticism -Focus on strengths

Helping Kids Cope With Stress

Kids deal with stress in both healthy and unhealthy ways. And while they may not initiate a conversation about what's bothering them,
they do want their parents to reach out and help them cope with their troubles. - Notice out loud. - Listen to your child - Comment briefly on the feelings you think your child was experiencing - Put a label on it - Help your child think of things to do - Listen and move on - Limit stress where possible. - Just be there. -Be patient

Why Kids Bully

Kids bully for a variety of reasons. Sometimes they pick on kids because they need a victim —
someone who seems emotionally or physically weaker, or just acts or appears different in some way — to feel more important, popular, or in control. Although some bullies are bigger or stronger than their victims, that's not always the case. Sometimes kids torment others because that's the way they've been treated. They may think their behavior is normal because they come from families or other settings where everyone regularly gets angry and shouts or calls each other names. Some popular TV shows even seem to promote meanness — people are "voted off," shunned, or ridiculed for their appearance or lack of talent.

Helping Kids Deal With Bullies

If your child tells you about being bullied, listen calmly and offer comfort and support.
Kids are often reluctant to tell adults about bullying because they feel embarrassed and ashamed that it's happening, or worry that their parents will be disappointed, upset, angry, or reactive.